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رمضان 1434

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قصة الأندلس

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27 - سقوط غرناطة


عمرو خالد
في الحلقة السابعة والعشرين من (قصة الأندلس)، سنتعرف على قصة سقوط الأندلس وفيها عرض لأهم بنود مفاوضات التسليم لآخر المدن الأندلسية.. وكيف تم التسليم.. تعالوا نتعرف على مجريات الأحداث في الحلقة.

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نتحدث اليوم عن سقوط غرناطة، مع الأسف انتهت الـ800 عام!

ففي الحياة هناك أُناس تبني الحضارات، وأُناس يحافظوا عليها، وأُناس يطوروا الحضارات، وأُناس يهدموا الحضارات!

إن الله تعالى جعل في الكون قوانين ثابتة "...فَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّةِ اللهِ تَبدِيلاً وَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّةِ اللهِ تَحوِيلاً" (سورة فاطر: 43)، فيجب أن نغير من أنفسنا لنسير على قوانين الله لا إن نغير قوانين الله في الكون، فالوحدة تأتي بالنصر، الصراع نتيجته هزيمة، التعايش نتيجته العِزة، وانعدامه يجلب الخزي. فتلك قواعد وقوانين ربانية.

تقسيم غرناطة

وقف الغالب بالله وأخوه محمد الزغل ضد بعضهما البعض وأختلفوا حول من يحكم غرناطة التي تعاني من الضعف كدولة، فالغالب بالله يحكم القسم الجنوبي –وهو الأهم- ومحمد الزغل يحكم القسم الشمالي بعد أن توسط بينهم – فرناندو - حقنًا للدماء فاقترح عليهم التقسيم! ما أشبه اليوم بالبارحة! وفي نفس اللحظة فرناندو - ملك اراغون - يتزوج من إيزابيلا ملكة قشتالة فأقاموا بذلك "اتحاد الممالك الأسبانية" بقيادة فرناندوا وإيزابيلا. كان الغالب بالله يحكم الجزء الجنوبي والأكبر من غرناطة وكان متزوجًا من امرأة عظيمة الشأن عرفت باسم - عائشة الحرة - ابنة عمه وكان لديهم ولدان محمد ويوسف، وسيصير محمدٌ الحاكم بعد أبيه الغالب بالله.

ثريا الرومانية

ولكن في ذلك الوقت كان الغالب بالله قد وقع في غرام امرأة رومية اسمها ثريا، كانت كالسُمِ في العسل، فلم يكن طموح هذه المرأة السيطرة على الغالب بالله وحده، بل كان طموحها السيطرة على غرناطة بأكملها فاستطاعت أن تتحكم به وأصبح كالخاتم في إصبعها وكانت تريد أن تبعد محمدًا –ابن الغالب بالله- عن العرش. ولدت ثريا للغالب بالله ولدًا ليرث العرش وبدأت تحيك المؤامرات ضد زوجة الغالب بالله –عائشة- وابنها محمد حتى أقنعت الغالب بالله أن يحدد إقامة زوجته وابنه في قلعة. قام الغالب بالله بفعل ما طلبت منه ثريا، أما زوجته فلم تفعل شيئًا تجاه تلك المؤامرات ضدها لكي لا تتفكك المملكة ومن أجل زوجها وأولادها، ولكن عندما حُوصِرت في القلعة بدأت تتواصل مع أعيان الدولة فأعانوها وأخرجوها وابنها من محبسها بغير علم الغالب بالله، ثم بدأ ابنها يتنازع ضد والده! فقالت ثريا المرأة الرومية للغالب بالله: "اقتله!"، ولما علم ابن الغالب بالله بهذا الأمر قام بالاستعانة بمن حوله لمحاربة أبيه. كانت عائشة الحرة تذهب لزوجها تطلب منه الطلاق حتى لا يخسر المملكة وابنه، ثم تذهب الى ابنها تقول له: "لم أحررك من القلعة لتحارب والدك!" ولكن لم يستمع لها أحدٌ فتقول: "أنا أصرخ في أموات!"، والنتيجة أن الابن سيقاتل أباه! ويبدأ الابن وشهرته – أبو عبد الله- يتفق مع عمه ضد أبيه! ثم يهرب الغالب بالله مع ثريا ويموت بعدها.

سيطرة فرناندو على الساحل الجنوبي وحصار غرناطة

أثناء هذه الأحداث استطاع فرناندو السيطرة على الساحل الجنوبي وجبل طارق جهة المغرب العربي اللذان كانا فضلهما كبيرٌ على فتح الأندلس، لكن هناك عربيٌ خان وسَلَّمّ جبل طارق لفرناندو وللأسبان! فكانت النتيجة أن انقطع المغرب العربي عن غرناطة فلا يستطيعون مساعدتها بعد ذلك فقد أصبحت غرناطة محاصرة! من جهة أخرى أصبح محمدٌ هو الملك وكان يطلقون عليه اسم –"محمد الصغير"، وأخذ فرناندو يتحرك بجيوشه وقام بإرسال رسالة إلى أبو عبد الله - محمد الصغير - يطلب منه تسليم قصر الحمراء وكأنه يريد تسليم غرناطة بالكامل! ولكن أبو عبد الله رفض التسليم فيبدأ فرناندو بمحاصرة غرناطة، وفي هذه الأثناء يظهر بطل في جيش غرناطة، هو شابٌ مجاهدٌ ذو ثقة، وكما قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم "الخير في وفي أمتي إلى يوم القيامة"، ذاك الشاب هو "موسى ابن أبي غسان". يقف موسى بن أبي غسان بوجه أبو عبد الله ويقول له: لا تُسَلِم غرناطة! ويخرج موسى ابن أبي غسان بالجيش وكلما أراد فرناندو الحرق والتخريب يخرج له ويحاربه ويقف ويقول لفرناندو: "فليسمع ملك أسبانيا أن العربي خُلِقَ للفرس والسيف، وخير لي أن أموت في قبرٍ تحت أنقاض غرناطة من أن أكون في قصرٍ وأنا ذليل!"

تسليم غرناطة

ويعود أبو عبد الله وموسى ابن أبي غسان. يريد أبو عبد الله أن يُسَلِّم المدينة لضعفه، ويأتي فصل الشتاء وينتشر الجوع والبرد مع عدم تحمل الناس للوضع، فيقف موسى ابن أبي غسان ويقول لهم: "لم يبقَ لنا إلا الأرض التي نقف عليها، فإذا ضيعناها ضاع العرق والدين والوطن!" ولكن أبو عبد الله أصبح ضعيفًا أكثر فأكثر، ويقف موسى مرة أخرى ويقول: "خير لنا أن نَعُدَ أسماء الشهداء من أن نَعُدَ أسماء الذين شهدوا سقوط غرناطة!" ويرفض التسليم ولكن أبو عبد الله يقول له: "اسكت..."، ويبعث أبو عبد الله وزيره ليتفاوض على تسليم غرناطة وليخرج من المدينة بأمان هو وأولاده، ويستعد بالفعل للتسليم ويتسلم فرناندوا مفاتيح المدينة! وللعلم حاول أبو عبد الله أن يقاتل وتم أسره وتجريده من ملابسه، وخرج يوم 2 يناير 1492 م؛ اليوم الذي خرج فيه المسلمون من الأندلس! خرج محمد الصغير، وعلى بعد 12 كيلو من غرناطة وقف وبكى، وقد رآه جواسيس الأسبان وهو يبكي، وقالت له عائشة الحرة: "أبكِ بكاء النساء مُلكًا لم تحفظه حفظ الرجال!" خرج محمد الصغير من غرناطة وعاش في المغرب وبنى هناك قصرًا، ويقال أنه جاهد وأُستشهد، ورواية أخرى تقول أنه عاش في قصره حتى مات وعاش أولاده بعده فقراء.

الذي يبني مُلكًا عظيمًا لله وللوطن يعيش كثيرًا، والذي يعيش لنفسه سيموت صغيرًا. وهكذا سقطت الأندلس! ولكن لازال هناك أمل! إذا كانت الأندلس سقطت من المسلمين فحضارتهم تعيش بها إلى الآن وخيرهم باقٍ إلى الآن، فبعد سقوطها بسنتين وبسبب الخرائط التي رسمها المسلمون أُكتشِفت أمريكا، وقبل سقوط الأندلس بـ40 سنة فُتِحَت القسطنطينية وكأن شمس الإسلام غَرُبَت عن غرب أوروبا لتُشرِقَ بمشرقها بفتح القسطنطينية ويصدق قول الله: "...وَإِنْ تَتَوَلَّوْا يَسْتَبْدِلْ قَوْمًا غَيْرَكُمْ ثُمَّ لا يَكُونُوا أَمْثَالَكُمْ" (سورة محمد: 38). فيا تُرى هل نكون من الذين يستبدلهم الله أم من الذين يختارهم لصنع تاريخ رائع لأمتنا؟ الدروس كثيرة والألم كبير، لكن الأمل باقٍ.

قام بتحريرها: قافلة تفريغ الصوتيات – دار الترجمة

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The Fall of Granada

I really do not know how to start! I do not know how to start this episode, it is very difficult to just talk about defeat. I tried to think about choosing words with a better sound but how can I beautify truth? How can I change the fact and truth? What nice words to use while the episode revolves around the fall of Granada? I am shooting and Granada is behind me, the sky is cloudy, as if it comes in line with the episode and my mental state. The eight hundred years have passed. The fact is, there are people who built civilizations and others who maintain it, and there are people who develop civilizations as there are people to demolish it.

Today we are talking about demolishing. It is true that this is not the last episode in the program, and I would like it to be a happy ending, but what to do? There are young people wondering now, is there anything that can be done, and unfortunately ... there is not. The laws and rules of Allah1 (SWT) 2do not change, they are fixed laws, “Then, you will never find any exchange of the enactment of Allah, and you will never find any transference to the enactment of Allah.” (TMQ3, 35: 43). We are the ones who should change to act according to the laws of Allah (SWT). Allah's laws in the universe do not change; unity brings victory, conflict brings defeat. With coexistence comes pride, with no coexistence comes shame and humiliation. These are divine rules and laws. Let me start from where we stopped yesterday. Al-Ghaleb Bellah and his brother Muhammad Ez-Zagel (The Courageous) and the conflict between the two brothers to determine the share of each of them in Granada which is already weak and cannot tolerate any division but Al-Ghaleb Bellah takes the southern section, the more important section, while Muhammad Ez-Zagel takes the north section. How was this division made? Unfortunately, it was after the intervention of Fernando between the two brothers to prevent bloodshed. How today is similar to yesterday!!! I am viewing our present situation in a mirror.

Granada was divided into two sections; north and south and both parties will lose. It was divided at the same time when Fernando, King of Aragon, located near Barcelona marries Isabella, Queen of Leon and Castile, and thus the union of the Spainish kingdoms was created. The Arabs were divided when the Spanish were united, and thus the result is well known, for Allah’s (SWT) laws are fixed. The inevitable result happened, the Spanish Kingdoms union and the emergence of Spain led by Fernando and Isabella.

Al-Ghaleb Bellah was the one leading Granada. He was married to a great lady named Aisha and she was later called The Free Aisha. She was his cousin and they had two sons, Muhammad and Yusuf. Muhammad is the one who will be the crowned prince after his father. But the truth is Al-Ghaleb Bellah fell in love with a Romanian girl who was just like poison in honey. Her name was Soraya. Soraya’s ambition was not only to control Al-Ghaleb Bellah but to control Granada as a whole. She managed to control him and she became able to lead him and make him do whatever she liked. She asked him to keep Aisha and her children away and then decided to become the mother of the crowned prince. Thus, the Romanian girl got pregnant and she now has a child who would become the heir of the throne. She began making conspiracies against Aisha and her son Muhammad and even convinced Al-Ghaleb Bellah to detain them inside a castle and determine their movements. Of course, it was not possible for such people living in such conflicts to succeed for it is against the fixed laws of Allah (SWT).

Aisha was silent throughout all that time, she was patient with her husband in order not to harm the kingdom and in order to preserve her husband and sons. But when she was kept and detained in that castle, she started to communicate with the elders of the country, she is a proud free woman who cannot be held like this in such a disgraceful way.

Aisha is a wonderful example for the woman who is patient with her husband but never accept humiliation. The nobles of the country succeeded in taking her out of her prison with her children. But once out, her son began to go through a conflict with his father and Soraya asked Al-Ghaleb Bellah to kill his own son. The son started to build an army to strike back against his father, the fall of Granada was thus inevitable. The son started to seek the help of other people in order to fight his own father - if the family collapses then the whole state is to follow. The Free Aisha was trying to save the situation, she would go to the father, Al-Ghaleb Bellah and ask him to even have divorce but to maintain the kingdom and protect his son. She would go to her son to tell him that she did not free him from the castle in order to fight his father but no one would listen to her. She then said her famous quote, “I scream among the dead”. The conflict between the father and his son took place and the spies of Fernando were keeping him informed with the situation. He was waiting until an agreement was reached between Muhammad Abu-Abdullah and his uncle, the king of North Granada, to fight his father who fled and died later.

At that time, Fernando had succeeded in controlling the entire southern coast, one Arabic traitor delivered Gibraltar- from where Tareq Ibn-Zeyad who conquered Andalusia- to Fernando and thereby stopped the main artery supplying Granada from Morocco and protecting Andalusia, and thus Granada became completely isolated. Abu-Abdullah, the son of Al-Ghaleb Bellah was ruling at that time, he is the one who wrestled with his father and whom the Spanish called Muhammad The Little and certainly it was not possible that Allah (SWT) would bless him after what he had done against his own father. Fernando began to move his armies and sent- in the year 1490 in Ramadan, the same month we entered Andalusia- a message requesting the handing over of the keys of Alhamra Palace, i.e. the delivery of Granada but he did not have enough courage to explicitly request it yet. Which is logical because the laws of Allah (SWT) do not change, Allah (SWT) does not flatter anyone, being Muslims will not make The-Almighty come in our favor, His rules and laws are fixed and clear, “… in case you vindicate Allah, He will give you victory and confirm your feet (i.e., give you victory).” (TMQ, 47: 7) ,“..and do not contend together, (and) so you would be disheartened and your vigor goes away;…” (TMQ, 8: 46). Abu-Abdullah refused to hand the key over as he was too weak, he was not a traitor but he was too weak and without any dream to fight for.

Fernando formed a siege around Granada and here showed up a hero, as the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) 4said, “Good is in my nation until the Day of Judgment.” Even in the darkest of times and circumstances, someone must appear to show and say the right words. Here was Moses Ibn-Abu-Ghassan, commander of Cavalry in the army of Granada and a young man full of confidence and willingness to struggle. He refused the handover. He used to come out whenever the army of Fernando tried to attack Granada and burn its gardens. He cried out loud to the commander of the Spanish and said, “Let the King of Spain hear that the Arab was created for the horse and the sword and that it is better for me to be dead and buried in the tomb under the rubble of Granada than to live in a palace and be submissive”. Abu-Abdullah wanted to surrender but Moses insisted on struggling. Winter arrived and the snow covered the mountains, there was lack in the supplies and Abu-Abdullah’s inclination to surrender increased but Moses refused and said, “The only thing remaining for us is the land we stand on, if we lose it then we have lost honor, religion, and the nation”. The weakness of Abu-Abdullah continues and Moses stood repeating, “Better for us to enumerate the names of the martyrs than to enumerate the names of the people who witnessed the delivery of Granada.” But Abu-Abdullah shut him up and sent his minister to negotiate the handover of Granada’s keys and held an agreement with a secret supplement assuring a safe exit for him and his family. Fernando - fearing deceit- sent three thousand solders at first to the receipt of Granada before he entered with his army in full. We must mention here that Abu-Abdullah had tried to resist the attack and that he fought at first but the Spaniards captured him and stripped him of his royal dress and shoes, and sent him back to Granada. This has broken him internally and convinced him of his weakness, and thus he decided to surrender. Abu-Abdullah left Andalusia and the Muslims left out with no return.

He left it in the second of January 1492, 897 AH. He stopped on the borders of Andalusia, just 12 km from Granada to cry. To cry over Andalusia and over the kingdom built on the effort and blood of thousands of martyrs. There, The Free-Aisha said a powerful word that affects any and all who hears it, she said to her son, “You must weep like a woman for a kingdom that you could not defend as a man.” The Spaniards’ spies witnessed that cry and built in the place where Abu-Abdullah stood to weep a rock that’s still a witness to the event, they call it, Suspero del moro, The Arab’s Sigh. As The Free-Aisha said it, we need men but not to fight against each other, to dispute but to establish a nation, invent, produce, innovate, and coexist in order to build. Abu-Abdullah headed to Morocco where he built a palace. Some say he regretted the great loss afterwards and went out in the armies of the people of Morocco and died as a martyr, while others said that he just lived in the palace until he died but what is certain is that his sons were poor, they have lost all their money, their power, integrity and families. He who builds a great kingdom for the sake of Allah (SWT) and the nation is honored in history and lives for a long time, while he who lives merely for himself dies soon and is considered as “little” in significance.

The story ended, the ruling of Andalusia is over but we should know that despite the negative sides and the fall of Andalusia politically and militarily from the hand of Muslims, there are always positive sides we should mention and remember:

1. Andalusia is the civilization in which we live under its shadow up to this day in Spain.

2. The maps left by the Muslims are the cause of the discovery of America a few years later, for their maps confirmed the existence of a land where America was discovered a few years later.

3. The Islamic ruling for Spain provided the whole world with a great civilization that pushed it thousands of steps ahead.

4. Forty years prior to the fall of Andalusia was the arrival of the Islamic conquest to Constantinople by Muhammad Al-Fateh, it was as if the sun of the Muslims alienated from Western Europe to shine on its East. Allah is the Greatest.

Translated by: The English Convoy – Dar al-Tarjama

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1 The word Allah is the Arabic term for God. Although the use of the word "Allah" is most often associated with Islam, it is not used exclusively by Muslims; Arab Christians and Arabic-speaking Jews also use it to refer to the One God. The Arabic word expresses the unique characteristics of the One God more precisely than the English term. Whereas the word "Allah" has no plural form in Arabic, the English form does. Allah is the God worshipped by all Prophets, from Adam to Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad.

2 SWT= Suhanahu wa Ta'ala [Glorified and Exalted Be He].

3 TMQ= Translation of the Meaning of the Qur'an. This translation is for the realized meaning, so far, of the stated (Surah:Ayah) of the Qur'an. Reading the translated meaning of the Qur'an can never replace reading it in Arabic, the language in which it was revealed.

4 PBUH= Peace be Upon Him.