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رمضان 1434

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قصة الأندلس

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22 - دولة الموحدين


عمرو خالد
ماذا تعرف عن معركة الآرك؟! وما دور هذه المعركة لتوطيد حكم الموحدين في الأندلس؟!.. هذا ما سنتعرف عليه اليوم فى رحلتنا مع قصة الأندلس في الحلقة الثانية والعشرين من البرنامج.

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مقدمة

توجد في إشبيلية مأذنة من أجمل المآذن في العالم كله، وحدة معمارية ضخمة، والذي بناها وبنى المسجد الجامع في إشبيلية هو قائد دولة الموحدين أبو يعقوب المنصور الموحدي. فعل أبو يعقوب شئ رائع عندما كانت دولة الموحدين تحت قيادته، فهو بفطرته يميل للسنة وبعيد عن البدع وبعيد عن طريق محمد بن تومرت الذي كان يميل للتكفير والأفكار الشاذة وكانت الدعوة عنده في شدة العنف، وقد أضعف دولة الموحدين ودولة المرابطين ولكن أبو يعقوب يُعد نموذجًا مختلفًا، فهو رجل معتدل دينًيا وإسلاميًا. فهو بدأ يتبرأ من أفكار محمد بن تومرت وبدأ يقول: "أنا أشهد إلى الله أني برئ من فكرة العصمة" لأن محمد بن تومرت كان يقول أنه إمام معصوم ولكن أبو يعقوب كان يقول: "أشهد إلى الله أنه لا معصموم إلا للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ولا عصمة إلا للأنبياء" وبدأ يقر هذا المبدأ فهذه اول خطوة في انتصار هذا الرجل. هذه الدولة فيها انتصار غير عادي وهزيمة غير عادية.

الانتصــار

1) الخطوة الأولى: الاعتدال طريق الانتصار

فهذا الرجل لكي يصل إلى الانتصار أول شئ فعله هو مفهوم السنة ومفهوم الإسلام المعتدل وبدأ ينشره في المغرب العربي ومراكش، لا للأفكار الشاذة، ولا الأفكارة المتطرفة ولا للعنف. فأقر الاعتدال والسنة والبعد عن التطرف وانتشر بين الناس أنه يرفض الفكر المتطرف: {وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطاً...} (البقرة143) فالاعتدال طريق الانتصار.

2) الخطوة الثانية: تجهيز وتقوية الجيش:

بدأ يجهز جيش قوي ووجد أن الأندلس مستهدفة من كل ملوك أوروبا والبرتغال والأماكن المختلفة، فقا بعمل فكرة في منتهى الذكاء؛ فميناء سبتة هو طريق العبور من المغرب إلى الأندلس ومضيق جبل طارق وعمل طريق آخر كان نواة مدينة الرباط {وَأَعِدُّواْ لَهُم مَّااسْتَطَعْتُم مِّن قُوَّةٍ وَمِن رِّبَاطِ الْخَيْلِ... } (الأنفال60) في هذا الوقت كان هناك ثلاثة ممالك تستعد للهجوم على إشيبلية: مملكة ليون وقشتالة من شمال الوسط ومملكة البرتغال من شمال الغرب ومملكة برشلونة من شمال الشرق. جهز أبو يوسف اليعقوب جيش كبير وجاء إلى الأندلس واستعاد أربعة مدن قديمة قد أخذت من المسلمين قديمًا. فقد طلب فألفونسو هدنة فكانت الهدنة خمس سنوات ورجع أبو يعقوب إلى المغرب. فبعد الخمس سنوات، جهز ألفونسو جيش كبير وهجم على مدن إسلامية وبدأ يقتل المسلمون فأرسل أبو يعقوب خطاب وقال: "لنأتينك بجنود لا قبل لكم بها" فجهز جيش كبير وصل إلى 100 ألف عبروا إلى الأندلس وحدثت معركة بين جيش أبو يوسف اليعقوب وألفونسو عند قلعة الأرك وكان جيش ألفونسو حوالي 300 ألف فكانت المعركة يوم 9 شعبان 591 ه. فكانت هذه المعركة انتصار كبير للمسلمين وكانت راية أبو يوسف: "لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله، لا غالب إلا الله" فنشر الإيمان في جيشه وشعبه.

كانت خطة ألفونسو أن يبعث أفواجًا لكي ينهك المسلمين، وبالفعل أُنهم المسلمون فنزل يعقوب من أعلى الحصان يقول: "لا غالب إلا الله" فخرج أبو صناديد، فارس من فرسان المسلمين، وبدأ يأخذ كتيبة ويدخل في جيش الفونسو من الوسط ويفعل فجوة بين نصف الجيش الأول والثاني وانتصر المسلمون انتصارًا حاسمًا وانتصر أبو يعقوب ولقب "المنصور" وجاء إشبيلية وبنى المسجد شكرًا لله تعالى، فهي من أكبر ثلاث مآذن في الأندلس والمغرب العربي شكرًا لله على النصر.

الهزيمة:

السبب الأول:

انتصر أبو يوسف اليعقوب انتصارًا كبيرًا ولكن بعد انتصاره وبعد لما لقب بالمنصور بعد 18 سنة وقع في خطأ كبير؛ وهو أنه قام بأسر 30 ألف أسير من جيش ألفونسو، ولكنه عفا عنهم جميعًا وأطلق

سراهحهم سرًا، ولذلك فضلوا أن يثأروا بأنفسهم وكانوا سبب هزيمة المسلمين بعد 18 سنة.

السبب الثاني:

توفى أبو يوسف اليعقوب وجاء ابنه محمد وسمى نفسه محمد الناصر بالرغم من عدم النصر فكان عنده أكبر جيش في تاريخ الأندلس. ولكن كان عنده عيب خطير؛ هو التردد في أخذ القرارات، فمثلًا يقوم بتحفيز الجيش للاستعداد للهجوم ثم يتراجع. ففعل ذلك ثلاث مرا ت مما أدي إلى إحباط الروح المعنوية في الجيش وبدأ جيش ألفونسو أن يكبر ثم قرر أن يبدأ المعركة. معركة العقاب سنة 609 فوقف المسلمون على هضبة وجيش ألفونسو وقف على هضبة أخرى وبينهم سهل، انقسم جيش المسلمون إلى ميمنة وميسرة وقلب ومؤخرة وعريش محمد الناصر في المؤخرة، انقسم جيش ألفونسو أيضًا كذلك فالميمنة تحارب مع الميسرة والقلب يحارب القلب والمؤخرة تراقب. ولكن قلب المسلمين كان يتكون من عرب وبربر فحدث نزاع وصراع بينهما.

فالبعض ذهب للميمنة والبعض ذهب للميسرة، فبدأ قلب ألفونسو يضرب حتى وصلوا للمؤخرة فهرب محمد الناصر قبل أن تبدأ المعركة وانهزم االمسلمين هزيمة كبيرة وكانت هزيمة ساحقة للجيش وهذه آخر معركة بين المسلمين والإسبان. انتصر الإلسبان وقُتل نصف الجيش بسبب صراع وعدم تعايش وعدم وحدة بين العرب والبربر، ولما انتصروا على المسلمين أخذوا راية المسلمين وانتهت المعركة.

قام بتحريرها: قافلة تفريغ الصوتيات – دار الترجمة

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The Story of Andalusia

by Dr. Amr Khaled

Ep 22

Abu-Yusuf Y’aqub Al-Mansour (The Victorious)

He is the leader of the Almohad dynasty who built one of the most beautiful minarets1 in the whole Islamic world, the minaret of Seville. He built this minaret and its great and large mosque. Abu- Y’aqub accomplished a wonderful work, for as soon as he was appointed as leader for the Almohad, and since he was a man inclined by nature to the sunnah2, far from fads and far from the beliefs of Muhammad Ibn-Tumart that were characterized with violence, strictness, and rigidity. Ibn-Tumart had caused conflicts between the Almohad and Almoravids and he had awakened and shaken both of them. We are now witnessing a moderate man on the religious and personal level. He started by rejecting all the strict ideas of Ibn-Tumart. He declared that he denied and rejected all the extremist ideas and thoughts of Ibn-Tumart, as well as his claims of being faultless. It is true that he belonged to Almohad dynasty which was founded by Muhammad Ibn-Tumart but the first thing he did was to reject his ideas. He said, “I bear witness to Allah that I am innocent of the idea of infallibility which was held by Muhammad Ibn-Tumart and that he was an infallible Imam , and I bear witness to Allah that only Prophet Muhammad (SAWS)3 is infallible.” He started to stress on this principle, and this was the first step in his triumph. This man achieved an exceptional victory. In today's episode we will talk about an unusual victory as well as an unusual defeat.

The first thing he did was to refer to the sunnah and to the concept of moderation in Islam, the concept of true Islam and he spread it in Marrakech, the capital of Morocco at that time. He called for the right doctrine, not the abnormal extremist ideas calling to violence. He declared while performing hajj4 that he was innocent from what Muhammad Ibn-Tumart believed in despite the fact that Muhammad Ibn-Tumart was the founder of Almohad dynasty. That was a brilliant move by which he approved the modernism of the sunnah away from extremism. He started to spread his policy among people and that he rejected any extremist ideologies. This was the first step towards moderation. “And thus We have made you a middle nation…” (TMQ, 1: 143)

The second step in victory was when Abu-Yusuf Y’aqub Al-Mansur began to equip the army forces. He noticed that Andalusia was the target of all the kings of Portugal, Europe, and the rest of the European countries. Thus, he started to think, what is the transit route from Morocco to Andalusia? It was Port of Ceuta and the Strait of Gibraltar, from where Tareq Ibn-Ziad passed, and he created another route where the heart of the city of Rabat was located, “And prepare for them whatever power and whatever garrisoned horses you can” (TMQ, 8: 60). At that time,

there were three kingdoms preparing for an attack on Seville, all of them coming from the north; The Kingdom of Leon and Castile from north-central, The Kingdom of Portugal which began to appear in the course of events coming from the north-west, and finally, The Kingdom of Barcelona coming from the north-east where they were to tighten their grip around the Muslims.

Abu-Yusuf Y’aqub came with a very large army, crossed and arrived to Andalusia, he was able to recover four other cities that were taken from the Muslims forty years ago. Feeling the Muslims’ army strength, King Alfonso demanded to hold a truce for five years. Abu-Y’aqub then returned to Morocco but Alfonso prepared a large army and began to attack the Islamic cities and murdered a lot of people. Therefore, Abu-Yusuf Y’aqub sent a significant long and strong letter to Alfonso telling him that, "We shall bring on you soldiers you’ve never witnessed before" and he prepared a significantly fearless army that reached almost one hundred thousand solider who crossed into Andalusia and faced Alfonso and all the kingdoms gathered at that time. The confrontation took place near the castle of Alarcos between three hundred thousand (some say about two hundred and eighty or sixty) soldiers in the army of Alfonso and one hundred thousand (some say eighty thousand) in the Army of Abu-Y’aqub .

The Battle of Alarcos

This battle took place on 9th Sha’ban 591 AH. It was a great victory for the Muslims where they were one-third of their enemy’s number but Abu-Y’aqub had brought up his people on moderation and his slogan written on his banner was, “There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, There is no Victorious but Allah”. Imagine one hundred thousand people repeating in one voice, “There is no Victorious but Allah”! They were not just mere empty words but rather what they truly believed in, something they strongly felt. Abu-Y’aqub succeeded in doing a great thing, spreading the faith in the people and the army of Morocco which motivated them to achieve this would-be great victory.

Alarcos battle began with 300 thousand soldiers fighting with such faith and determination. The plan of Alfonso was to throw his army in the form of waves one after the other in order to exhaust the Muslim army, and indeed the Muslim army began to get exhausted but Abu-Y’aqub stepped in the field with his horse and started to yell at the people, “There is no Victorious but Allah”. They got motivated and one of the army leaders, named Abu-Snaded, took a battalion of the army and broke the army of Alfonso from its middle. He created a gap between the two sections of the army. He did not die, he was able to create a gap in the enemy’s army, along with his knights and so the second half of Alfonso’s army started to escape. When they found themselves isolated, the first half was surrounded by the Muslims and it was a decisive victory based on, “There is no Victorious but Allah” which caused miracles to happen. Hence, Abu-Ya’qub got his title Al-Mansur (The Victorious) who came to Seville where he built this mosque out of gratitude in order to thank Allah for blessing him with this victory. This Mosque has got a wonderful minaret which is one of the top three minarets in Andalusia and Morocco and the second largest mosque in Spain - Andalusia - after the Mosque of Cordoba and the third great minaret after that of Marrakech and Rabat.

Abu-Ya’qub was able to achieve a great victory but eighteen years later a terrible defeat will occur as well. The fact is after his victory, he committed a terrible mistake when he released thirty thousand prisoners he had captured from the army of Alfonso which was a great gift for Alfonso’s troops. He was advised not to release them or at least to keep them for a period of time but he refused and for some unknown reason, maybe a matter of love for glory and to show great pardon or out of goodness, he released these soldiers back to the army which was a great mistake for these soldiers are the ones who wanted to avenge themselves and who brought about the defeat of the Muslims eighteen years later. There were several other ways to deal with these soldiers, other than killing of course but that's what happened. Alfonso was extremely happy with their return and this was the first mistake that occurred.

Then Abu-Y’aqub died and his son Muhammad took his place. The first thing he did was to give himself the title of Al-Nasser (The Conqueror) even before achieving any victory. Muhammad had the largest army ever in the history of Andalusia, his army had more than one hundred thousand soldiers but he had a serious flaw, he was hesitant. They would tell him that Alfonso’s armies and the Spaniards are attacking, he would give the order to be prepared and begin to alert the army and then withdraw his decision, and this affected the morale of the army. They would tell him that Alfonso is strengthening his army; he would give the order to get ready to confront them before they attacked them. The army would get motivated and prepare to attack, the morale and the intentions are strong, and then he would hesitate and retract. This mistake happened three times until the morale of the soldiers completely dropped. This continued till he knew that the army of Alfonso reached one hundred thousand soldiers and it was then when he gave the real order to attack. The morale had already fallen and the army was in no position or state to go to war in spite of being the largest army in the history of Andalusia.

We continue to learn great lessons from history: How to keep the morale of your army and people high?

The Battle of Al-Uqab (The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa)

It was a terrible battle, the last battle in the history of Muslims in Andalusia, the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa which took place in 609 AH, eighteen years after the victory of Abu-Y’aqub on 591. In the first battle, Abu-Y’aqub was the leader, while in this one his son, Muhammad was the leader. In the first battle the theme was faith, “There’s no Victorious but Allah”, there was a sincere intention but in this one hesitation prevailed, the intention was not clear and there was no determination for fighting.

Description of the battle

The Muslim army stood on a hill, as well as Alfonso’s army with a valley separating between them. Both armies were divided into left and right wings, core, and at the back of each army is the commander watching the events to decide when to attack. The war plan at that time was that both left and right wings of each army would attack each other; the heart against the heart. The battle began and the wings clashed but the core of the Muslim army wasn’t available. The heart of the Muslim army was composed of Arabs and Berbers and dispute occurred between them due to the low morale of the army. We did not learn from the lessons of the past, we are now in 609 AH , the Muslims are ruling Andalusia for six hundred years now, however, they still disagree and dispute in spite of the repeated lessons and opportunities given to them. Here comes the question, unity or conflict? Co-existence or lack of co-existence? Tribalism or unity and acceptance of others?

Thus, the core-free Muslim army enabled Alfonso’s army to easily progress from the middle to the rear where the Muslim command center, Muhammad Al-Nasser, fled on his horse before even the battle had started and then escaped by boat to Marakesh in Morocco. Thus, the Muslims were severely defeated; they lost half of the army who never returned to its previous status of power. It was the last great war between the Muslims and the Spaniards who achieved a decisive victory in that battle, and there is a picture painted by the Spaniards to commemorate their victory in this battle since it was the first victory of great value they managed to achieve since that Tareq Ibn-Ziad, and all this due to the existence of conflict and the lack of unity and co-existence between the Arabs and the Berbers. Unfortunately, the Muslim banner is still kept by the Spaniards in a monastery in the city of Borges.

Translated by: The English Convoy – Dar al-Tarjama

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